Friday, December 31, 2010

Wetlands in India

Definition of Wetlands ..
Wetlands are the ecotones or transitional zones between permanently aquatic and dry terrestrial ecosystems. Ramsar Convention has defined wetlands as "areas of marsh, fen , peatland or water, whether natural or artifical, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low t ide does not exceed six meters". A wides variet y of wetlands like marshes, swamps, open wat er bodies, mangroves and tidal flats and salt marshes etc. exists in our country.
Sr. No. Name of Wetland Date of declaration State
1 Ashtamudi Wetland 19/08/02 Kerala
2 Bhitarkanika Mangroves 19/08/02 Orissa
3 Bhoj Wetland 19/08/02 Madhya Pradesh
4 Chandertal Wetland 08/11/05 Himachal Pradesh
5 Chilika Lake 01/10/81 Orissa
6 Deepor Beel 19/08/02 Assam
7 East Calcutta Wetlands 19/08/02 West Bengal
8 Harike Lake 23/03/90 Punjab
9 Hokera Wetland 08/11/05 Jammu and Kashmir
10 Kanjli 22/01/02 Punjab
11 Keoladeo National Park MR 01/10/81 Rajasthan
12 Kolleru Lake 19/08/02 Andhra Pradesh
13 Loktak Lake MR 23/03/90 Manipur
14 Point Calimere 19/08/02 Tamil Nadu
15 Pong Dam Lake 19/08/02 Himachal Pradesh
16 Renuka Wetland 08/11/05 Himachal Pradesh
17 Ropar 22/01/02 Punjab
18 Rudrasagar Lake 08/11/05 Tripura
19 Sambhar Lake 23/03/90 Rajasthan
20 Sasthamkotta Lake 19/08/02 Kerala
21 Surinsar-Mansar Lakes 08/11/05 Jammu and Kashmir
22 Tsomoriri 19/08/02 Jammu and Kashmir
23 Vembanad-Kol Wetland 19/08/02 Kerala
24 Wular Lake 23/03/90 Jammu and Kashmir
25 Upper Ganga River
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
08/11/05 Uttar Pradesh

Wetlands Classification Scheme
Inland Wetlands
1. Natural
  • Lakes/Ponds
  • Ox-bow lakes/ Cut-off meanders
  • Waterlogged (Seasonal)
  • Playas
  • Swamp/marsh
2. Man-made
  • Reservoirs
  • Tanks
  • Waterlogged
  • Abandoned quarries
  • Ash pond/cooling pond
Coastal Wetlands
1. Natural
  • Estuary
  • Lagoon
  • Creek
  • Backwater (Kayal)
  • Bay
  • Tidal flat/Split/Bar
  • Coral reef
  • Rocky coast
  • Mangroove forest
  • Salt marsh/marsh vegetation
  • Other vegetation
2. Man-made
  • Salt pans
  • Aquaculture

The Ramsar Convention

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.

The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. The treaty was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and the Convention's member countries cover all geographic regions of the planet.

Why save Wetlands ?
Wetlands are integral to a healthy environment. They help to retain water during dry periods, thus keeping the water table high and relatively stable. During periods of flooding, they act to reduce flood levels and to trap suspended solids and nutrients to the lakes than if they flow directly into the lakes. The removal of such wetland systems because of urbanization or other factors typically causes lake water quality to worsen. In addition, wetlands are important feeding, breeding, and drinking areas for wildlife and provide a stopping place and refuge for waterfowl. As with any natural habitat, wetlands are important in supporting species diversity and have a complex and important food web. The recent millenium assessment of ecosystems puts freshwater biodiversity as the most threatened of all types of biodiversity.
How are they threatened..?
These wetland values are increasingly facing several anthropogenic pressures. The rapidly expanding human population, large scale changes in land use/landcover and burgeoning development projects and improper use of watersheds have all caused a substantial decline of wetland resources of the country. Absence of reliable and updated information and data on extent of wetlands, their conservation values and socioeconomic importance has greatly hampered development of policy, legislation and administrative interventions by the state.
Why do we need to map wetlands...?
For the long-term conservation planning of wetlands, spatial data and information is required for any intervention. Wetland eco-system constitute an integral part of cultural and biodiversity landscape of India. It is estimated that 3.5 millions ha exists in the country according to the 1992-1993 study by the Space Application Centre. However, this information pertains to wetlands above 56ha in size. Past research on wetland conservation in the country has shown conclusively that micro wetlands or satellite wetlands around a bigger wetland act as a constellation of habitat mosaic for resident and migratory waterfowl. This is of special importance for inland wetland habitats in the flyways of migratory birds in the Indo-Gangetic plains and in Deccan peninsula. Often, the size of these micro wetlands is much smaller than 50ha Therefore, there is a great need to map wetlands of size smaller than 50ha. Spatial information on wetlands resources is a critical and an urgently needed for an effective conservation of these important eco-system.
Use of advanced spatial technology tools
For a country like India, with its vast biological and cultural diversity, a comprehensive use of remote sensing, GIS and other related technologies will be of great use in conservation. Classifying and mapping wetlands based on geomorphology, water quality and other biological attribute can lead to qualitative assessment. Results obtained could be used in planning, inventorying and monitoring wetlands in the country.

What is World Wetlands Day?  2 February each year is World Wetlands Day. It marks the date of the signing of the Convention on Wetlands on 2 February 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea. 

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Thursday, December 9, 2010

Water Resources in India

India is endowed with a rich and vast diversity of natural resources, water being one of them. Its development and management plays a vital role in agriculture production. Integrated water management is vital for poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development. National Water Policy (2002) envisages that the water resources of the country should be developed and managed in an integrated manner.

Water is food and fire is the eater of the food.
Fire is established in water and
Water is established in fire

-Taittiriya Upanishad 3.8

icon  General Facts

World oceans cover about three fourth of earth’s surface. According to the UN estimates, the total amount of water on earth is about 1400 million cubic kilometre  which is enough to cover the earth with a layer of 3000 metres depth. However the fresh water constitutes a very small proportion of this enormous quantity. About 2.7 per cent of the total water available on the earth is fresh water of which about 75.2 per cent lies frozen in polar regions and another 22.6 per cent is present as ground water. The rest is available in lakes, rivers, atmosphere, moisture, soil and vegetation. What is effectively available for consumption and other uses is a small proportion of the quantity available in rivers, lakes and ground water. The crisis about water resources development and management thus arises because most of the water is not available for use and secondly it is characterized by its highly uneven spatial distribution. Accordingly, the importance of water has been recognised and greater emphasis is being laid on its economic use and better management.

Water on the earth is in motion through the hydrological cycle. The utilisation of water for most of the users i.e. human, animal or plant involve movement of water. The dynamic and renewable nature of the water resources and the recurrent need for its utilisation requires that water resources are measured in terms of its flow rates. Thus water resources have two facets. The dynamic resource, measured as flow is more relevant for most of developmental needs. The static or fixed nature of the reserve, involving the quantity of water, the length of area of the water bodies is also relevant for some activities like pisciculture, navigation etc. Both these aspects are discussed below.

Irrigation World

Analysing the country-wise geographical area, arable land and irrigated area in the World, it is found that among the continents largest geographical area lies in the Africa which is about 23 per cent of the world geographic area. However, Asia (excluding erstwhile countries of USSR) with only 21 per cent of world geographical area has about 32 per cent of world’s arable land followed by North Central America having about 20 per cent of World’s arable land. Africa has only 12 per cent of world’s arable land. It has been seen that irrigated area in the World as about 18.5 per cent of the arable land in 1994. In 1989, 63 per cent of world’s irrigated area was in Asia, whereas in 1994 this percentage has gone upto 64 per cent. Also 37 per cent of arable land of Asia was irrigated in 1994. 

Among Asian countries, India has the largest arable land, which is close to 39 per cent of Asia’s arable land. Only United States of America has more arable land than India.

icon  Ground Water Exploration

Ground water exploration aided by drilling is one of the major activities of the Board with an objective to discover aquifers in different hydrogeological conditions and determination of hydraulic parameters. Large-scale sub-surface exploration programme for ground water was initiated during 1954. In the initial years, exploratory drilling activities were confined to alluvial tracts in major river basins and sub mountainous bouldary tracts of Himalayan foothills. In mid eighties, CGWB added 26 new DTH drilling rigs in its fleet with which the exploratory drilling in hard rock regions gained momentum. The major thrust of exploratory drilling programme in nineties was in areas underlain by hard rock. Another important development in first half of nineties was introduction of open hole drilling technology in India. CGWB acquired seven percussion drilling rigs for exploratory drilling in bouldary/ semi-consolidated formations in Himalyan foothills from Jammu & Kashmir in  north west to Arunachal Pradesh in north east. These exploration programmes formed the background of scientific evaluation of the water bearing properties of various rock formations. 

More than 27,500 wells have been drilled by Central Ground Water Board throughout the country. High yielding wells were drilled under ground water exploration programme in water deficient areas in the country, including  tribal and drought prone areas. Most of these high yielding wells have been handed over to the respective State Governments for public water supply. Board had also come forward in disaster mitigation activities during Latur earthquake during 1993, Bhuj earthquake during 2001, Super cyclone in Orissa during 2000 and Tsunami hit coastal belt of Tamil Nadu & Kerala and Andaman & Nicobar Islands during 2004 by way of construction of tube wells for water supply. 

icon  Water Bodies

Inland Water resources of the country are classified as rivers and canals; reservoirs; tanks & ponds; beels, oxbow lakes, derelict water; and brackish water. Other than rivers and canals, total water bodies cover all area of about 7 M.Ha. Of the fivers and canals, Uttar Pradesh occupies the First place with the total length of rivers and canals as 31.2 thousand km, which is about 17 percent of the total length of rivers and canals in the country. Other states following Uttar Pradesh are Jammu & Kashmir and Madhya Pradesh. Among the remaining forms of the inland water resources, tanks and ponds have maximum area (2.9 M.Ha.) followed by reservoirs (2.1 M.Ha.).

Most of the area under tanks and ponds lies in Southern States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. These states along with West Bengal, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 62 percent of total area under tanks and ponds in the country. As far as reservoirs are concerned, major states like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasman and Uttar Pradesh account for larger portion of area under reservoirs. More than 77 percent of area under beels, oxbow, lakes and derelict water lies in the states of Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Assam. Orissa ranks first as regards the total area of brackish water and is followed by Gujarat, Kerala and West Bengal. The total area of inland water resources is, thus, unevenly distributed over the country with five states namely Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and West Bengal accounting for more than half of the country's inland water bodies.

icon  Water in Indian Constitution

India is union of States. The constitutional provisions in respect of allocation of responsibilities between the State and Centre fall into three categories: The Union List (List-I), the State List (List-II) and the Concurrent List (List-III). Article 246 of the Constitution deals with subject matter of laws to be made by the Parliament and by Legislature of the States. As most of the rivers in the country are inter-State, the regulation and development of waters of these rivers, is a source of inter-State differences and disputes. In the Constitution, water is a matter included in Entry 17 of List-II i.e. State List. This entry is subject to the provision of Entry 56 of List-I i.e. Union List.

Monday, December 6, 2010



IRON ORE: One of the most widely distributed elements of earth’s crust, iron rarely occurs in free state. Like several other metals, iron ore deposits are associated mainly with igneous intrusions. Good quality iron ore is found in Russia, Ukraine, China, and the USA etc. Russia has the largest proven reserves of iron ore in the world. In 1999, China emerged as the biggest producer of iron ore in the world, followed by Brazil, Australia, India and Russia.

Magnetite, haemitite, limonite and siderite are the common types of iron ore.



Distribution in India

Distribution in World


Magnetite with nearly 70 per cent iron content is the finest iron ore. Magnetite ore deposits are in igneous or metamorphic rocks. The banded type is considered to be the most important due to extensive occurrence, easy amenability to beneficiation by crushing and magnetic separation and agglomeration. Its color ranges from dark brown to black.

In India, magnetite deposits occur in Dharwar and Cuddapah systems of rock in the peninsula, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. Kerala.

Sweden, Russia and Liberia


Kudremukh, Hariyur, Kunigal, Siddarhali, Shankarguddu, Ubrani etc.

Andhra Pradesh

Chityal, Daturabad, Kalleda, Rabanpalli, Singreni, Gopalpur, Utla etc

Tamil Nadu

Chettari,Belukkurrichi, Namagiri, Panchalais, Sittinglinge, Kanjamahal, Tirthamahal amd Mahadev Hills, in the Salem district, Kelur, Malnad and Devala and Nilgiri district


Mostly in the Kozhikode district and in Cherupa, Eliyettimala, Nauminda, Naduvallur and Allampara



Distribution in India

Distribution in World


Haemetite Iron ore contains 65 per cent iron. It is hard, bumpy, compact and reddish in color. Haemetite ores contribute to more than three-fourths of india’s total production of Iron ores. They mostly occur as laminated hematite, micaceous haemitite, and heamatite breecia and heamatite quartz schist.

They are found in the Dharwar and Cuddapah systems of rock in the peninsular Deccan.

Lake Superior ( USA), Qebec( Canada), Brazil, Russia, Liberia, China and Spain

Jharkhand and Orissa

Gurumahisani- Badampahar belt and Barajamada group which include Barbil, Gua, Bonai, Joda, Kiriburu, Suleipat, Gorumahisini, Noamundi, Barajamda etc. Barajamda group. This covers part of Singhbhum district in Jharkhand and contains the largest ore reserves in the country.

Madhya Pradesh &


Bailadila Raughat and Aridongri group in Bastar district; Dalli-Rajhara group in the Durg district; and the deposits in Jabalpur district.


Lohara, Pipalgaon, Asola and Surajgarh( in Chandraprabha district )


Chikmaglur, Sandur, Bellary, Hospet, shimoga and Chitradurga districts


Bicholim-Sirigao deposits, Gudbem-Dignem –Surle deposits, Velgnem- Pale deposits and Arwalem deposits

Andhra Pradesh

Anantpur, Khamman, Krishna Kurnool, Cuddapah and Nellore districts where the main producing centers are Jaggayapeta, Ramallakota, Velduti, Nayudupetta & Bayyaram.



Distribution in India

Distribution in world


Brown ore occurring in sedimentary formations. Its iron content is lea than 50 per cent and it has many impurities.

Garhwal( Uttaranchal),Mirzapur district (U.P),

Kangra Valley (Himachal Pradesh

Alabama( USA)



Distribution in India

Distribution in world


Siderite is carbonate of iron & is found near coal fields. It is also a residual ore and has an iron content of 20 to 30 per cent.

Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh

England(Lincolnshire),France and Luxemburg


MANGANESE ORE: in terms of the Manganiferrous ores with regard to the proportion of manganese to iron, it is customary to use the term manganese ore for those containing over 40 per cent of manganese.

Manganese is used as Ferro ally; it removes gases and acts as cleanser in the manufacture of steel. Manganese is also used as a decloriser in glass, and in the manufacture of bleaching powder and electric batteries.

Distribution in the World: Former USSR, south Africa, Gabon, Australia, Brazil, France and India are major producing centers.

Distribution in India :

o India is the third largest producer of manganese ore in the world.

o The country’s most important ore deposits occur in the form of sedimentary stratified metamorphic deposits in the Dharwar system. The manganese deposits are generally either syngenetic (sedimentary) as in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, epigenetic (residual enrichment and oxidation) as Jharkhand, Orissa, Goa and Karnataka, or lateritic and supergene enrichments associated with the first two groups.

o On the basis of the mode of occurrence and association with different kinds of country rocks, the Indian manganese ore deposits have been classified as

Ø Gonditic ores which are associated with metamorphosed manganiferous sediments

Ø Koduritic ores which are produced due to reactions between the country rocks and invading magma or granitic composition

Ø Lateritoid ores which are produced due to metasomatic replacement and residual concentration

In India, extensive and rich manganese deposits occur in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Indian manganese deposits display some distinct geological formation, which are

a) Deposits associated with Khondalite rocks (garnet, sillimanite, gneisses) found in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh and in the Kalahandi and Koraput districts in Orissa.

b) Deposits associated with the iron ore bearing rocks (schists) found in Karnataka state in the Sandur hills as the Bisgold- Yellapur deposits in North Kanara, and in the Chitradurga and shimoga belt, and the Supa-Dandeli area of North Kanara;

c) Deposits associated with limestone and dolomite which occur in the Sausar-Manganese- Marble province of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Gangapur (Orissa), Ratnagiri in Maharashtra and Panch Mahal and Vadodara districts of Gujarat.


Chromite is the only ore mineral of chromium and is an important alloying element in the manufacture of steel. Chromite is an oxide of iron and chromium with a theoretical composition of 32 per cent and 68 per cent. Alumina, iron oxide, magnesium oxide, lime and silica may reduce content.

Distribution in the World: the world’s leading producer of Chromite is south Africa, Zimbabwe, Russia and Kazakhstan.

Distribution in India :

Major deposits of Chromite in India are as follows:


Nuggchalli belt which includes Byrapur, Chikonhalli, Pensamudra, Bhaktarahalli in Hassan district


Kankauli and Vagda areas in Ratnagiri district


Sukinda ultra basic belt of Cuttack, Dhenkanal and Keonjhar districts ( the state is considered to have the largest Chromite deposit in the country)


Hills of Rorburu, Kiriburu and Chittangburu in Singhbhum district

Tamil Nadu

Sittampudi in Salem district


The main ore is pentlaudite, a complex mixture of nickel, iron and sulphur. Nickel is also often found in association with copper. It is used for plating iron, so it can be used in metal pars located near compasses. Canada produces the largest amount of world’s nickel. Russia and Australia have large resources.



Economic Uses: 1. Gold is a precious metal and till very recently constituted the international standard of exchange.

2. In alloy state with other metals, it is metals used in ornamentation.

3. The industrial uses of gold alloys are in dentistry and in chemical plants, thermo-couples, watches, X-rays equipment, photography and some medicines.

Distribution in the World: the greatest producer is south Africa with major mines in the Witwatersrand, Odendaalrus and Lydenburg. Canada, Japan, the USA, Zimbabwe and Ghana also produce gold.

Distribution in India:

Kolar Field: the Kolar Field in Karnataka has been the principal source of gold production in India since 1871 when mining first started. It has four productive mines – Nandydroog, Champion Reef (deepest mine in the world), Mysore and Ooregaum. The Dharwar schist on which Kolar gold fields are situated run in a north-south direction for 80 km . However, the quartz veins bearing gold are confined to only 6-7 km section near Marikuppan. The mineralizing solutions responsible for the development of the auriferous veins of South India were probably derived from the magma which gave rise to champion gneisses. The Kolar field mined by the Bharat Gold Mines Ltd has always had the highest output in India, but it now faces closure.

Bharat Gold Mines Ltd

BGML is a PSU under the administrative control of the Ministry of Mines and is now closed. It was set up in 1972 to operate the Kolar Gold Mines taken over by the central government from the government of Mysore. It was primarily engaged in gold mining from its captive mines in the Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) located mainly in Karnataka but partly also in Andhra Pradesh. Towards its last years the Company also undertook mine development, shaft sinking, manufacture of mining machinery and other fabricated items for outside clients for which it set up a Mine Construction and Engineering Division. Until the time of its closure BGML was the only world class gold mining operation in India. The only other gold mine in the country, viz. the Hutti Gold Mine owned by the Karnataka government, is a miniscule operation and is not recognized as a proper gold mine by world standards. During its heyday BGML's Kolar Gold Mines added to the glory of India as one of the great gold mining operations of the world and Kolar was known as the largest gold production centre in Asia.

The Kolar Gold Mines of BGML were closed down in the year 2001 as the gold ore reserves got exhausted after 150 years of continuous and heavy extraction. Both the exploration agencies of government viz. the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL) declared that mining the meager remaining reserves was not a technically or economically viable option. At the time of its closure BGML had run up losses of more than Rs.900 crore.

In the Raichur district, the auriferous veins occur within the Schistose rocks of Dharwarian age. There are six auriferous quartz reefs of which the Oakley reef is the main producer. It is worked by Hutti Gold Mines Company of Karnataka state. According to the Geological Survey of India, the reserves in both these fields are estimated at about 4.5 million tonnes with a total gold content of about 45000 kg. In addition ore reserves of about 60000 tonnes with 8.5 gm per tonnes have been indicated in Budini area.

New fields have been found at Kempinkote (Hassan district), Honnali (Shimoga district), Siddarahalli (Chikmaglur district), Bellara (Chitaradurg district) and Munglur (Gulbarga district). In Andhra Pradesh the Ramgiri field of Anantapur district is main source of gold.



The ore minerals are stephanite, agentite, proustite and pyrargyrite. Silver is found in the galena ores that may have up to one per cent of this metallic mineral.

Distribution in the World: Mexico is the chief producer of silver; other producers are Russia, Canada, Peru and Australia.

Distribution in India: in India, the lead-zinc ores of Zawar in Rajasthan yield silver. Silver is derived as a byproduct in the Karnataka gold fields. The lead ores in

Andhra Pradesh: Guntur, Cuddapah, Kurnool districts

Jharkhand: Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum

Bihar: Bhagalpur

Gujarat: Vadodara district

Karnataka: the district of Bellary

Uttaranchal: Almora district

Jammu & Kashmir : Baramulla district


Economic Uses: the metal is of great industrial important due to its high electric conductivity, high ductility and malleability. Thus it is mostly used in electrical manufacturing. Besides, the copper alloys are used in buildings, automobiles, airplanes, naval ships, household utensils as well as in metallurgy and paints. However, in recent years, the increasing use of glass fibres has reduced the pressure on copper.

Distribution in the World: the largest producers of copper ores are the USA, Russia , Chile, Zambia, Canada and Zaire. Chile is the largest producer.

Distribution in India

India is deficient in Copper ores and thus depends to a large extent on imports.

Important Copper deposits in India are


Khetri complex which includes the Khi-Dariba area in Alwar district and the Khetri-Singhana area in Jhunjhunu district (Khetri deposits is one of the important copper deposits in the country.)


Singhbhum district

Andhra Pradesh

Bondalamottu, Nalankonda and dhukonda in the agnigundala belt of Guntur district; Ganikalava, Gumankonda and Somalapilli in Karnool district; and Garimanipenta in Nellore district.


The main ore of tin is cassiterite or tinstone with about 75 per cent of tin. It occurs in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Nearly 80 per cent of the world’s supplies come from alluvial deposits.

Distribution in World

India: Malaysia is the world’s leading producer and exporter of tin. Other producers are china, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Zaire, Bolivia and Australia.

Distribution in the India:

In India, Bihar, Jharkhand and Rajasthan are main producers of tin.


The two metals, lead and zinc rarely occur in native state. They generally occur in combination with other elements. Galena is the chief ore of lead while sphalerite or zinc blende is the chief ore of zinc.

Economic Uses:

1. Lead is used in the construction of accumulators, for lead piping and sheeting cable covers, as pigments in glass making and in medicine.

2. Zinc is used for coating, galvanizing iron and steel products, in the manufacture of pigments and alloys with other metals (like brass, bronze, german silver) and in the manufacture of batteries and electric appliances. Besides, it is widely used in textile industry, timber preservation, etc.

Distribution in the World

Major producers of lead are the USA, Russia, Australia, Canada, Peru and Bulgaria. Leading producers of zinc are Canada, Russia, Peru Australia & the USA.

Distribution in India


Here, lead and zinc are extracted from the Zawar mines in Udaipur district and from Anguncha- Rampura in Bhilwara district. In these mines, silver ore is also extracted.

Andhra Pradesh

Cuddapah district has the reserves


Here lead and zinc are extracted from Banaskantha, Vadodara, Panchmahal and Surat.


Economic Uses:

BAUXITE is used in the manufacture of alum, aluminous sulphates and other chemicals; the construction of airplanes, automobiles, electrical appliances, etc. and the manufacture of containers, utensils and machineries.

Distribution in the World: Australia, guinea, Jamaica , brazil, Surinam Yugoslavia and the state of Arkansas in USA, china, Malaysia, Indonesia, turkey and India

Distribution in India

The Bauxite deposits are mainly spread over the Eastern Ghats.

Madhya Pradesh

Nearly 30% of country’s production of Bauxite comes from Madhya Pradesh. Bauxite deposits here are found in Amarkantak plateau in Shahdot district. Maikala hills and the plateau region of Sarguja-Bilaspur- Raigarh-Katni


Occur in Ranchi and Palamau


Found in Belagaum


Kolaba, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra have copper reserves

Tamil Nadu

Found in salem,Nilgiri,Coimbatore &Madurai

Uttar Pradesh


Jammu & Kashmir

Here, high grade bauxite deposits are found in Poonch and Udhampur.



Economic Uses:

a) Mica is used as an insulating material in electrical industry.

b) Muscovite (white-mica/potash mica), Phlogopite (amber mica/magnesium iron mica) splitting are used in making of build-up mica or micanite and other insulation products, for heat insulation and also electrical insulation.

c) In powder form, it is used in lubricating oils and decorative wall papers.

Distribution in the World: India is the most important mica producing country in the world and it supplies 80 per cent of the world requirements of block mica.

Distribution in India: Mica is produced mainly in the three states of Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. Major producing regions include the following


Here, mica is extracted from the Hazaribagh belt, with Koderma contributing a large part of the country’s total production.


Here, mica is mined in the Beawar,Ajmer belt, Banswara-Dungarpur belt, Bhilwara , Tonk and Kaunthal in Udaipur.

Andhra Pradesh

Here, mica is extracted from Nellore in Gudur district.