Monday, December 28, 2009

The Volcano Explosivity Index

Volcanic eruptions can be violent, passive, or anywhere in between. When a people are told that a volcano is going to erupt, many imagine an explosive eruption with a giant ominous cloud of ash and red hot lava flowing down a mountain. However, since volcanic eruptions can vary greatly in size and intensity, volcanologists use the Volcano Explosivity Index, or VEI, to classify the size of an eruption.

The Volcano Explosivity Index

The VEI scale has been used in modern volcanology as a way to forecast the possible size of a volcanic eruption based on that volcano's historical eruptions.

It first debuted in 1982 as a paper titled "The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism," written by Christopher Newhall and Steve Self and published in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

The VEI of a volcano depends mostly on the volume of material ejected during the eruption and the height of the ash column or plume. The VEI scale breaks down volcanic eruptions into nine classifications ranging from a VEI of zero to eight - zero being a non-explosive eruption and eight being a mega-colossal eruption. There are no known explosive events with a VEI greater than eight.

Saturday, December 26, 2009

Earthquake n Landforms


Solar System (imp points)

Solar System Currently Whats IN news

Indian scientist examines possibility of life on planets other than Earth.. A recent article by Ashwini Kumar Lal, from the ministry of statistics and programme implementation, government of India, has examined the possibility of life on planets and satellites within our solar system and beyond.Read More--


  1. Have no light of there own,
  2. all of tem EXCEPT Venus n Uranus rotate upon their axis from west to east


  1. earth has one(moon)
  2. Jupiter has more than 60
  3. Mercury n Venus Have none

Asteroids n Planetoids

Term---whole series of very small planets or fragments of planets revolving around the sun between Jupiter n Mars.

Centre of Solar System

The SUN (this theory was given by Copernicus called heliocentric view.)

Prior to earth was considered as the centre(this theory by Ptolemy)


  1. Average dist. Frm earth—150,000,000kms
  2. Pluto Farthest


  1. third planet
  2. after Mercury n Venus(called inferior planets)
  3. age—4.6 billion
  4. Shape-Oblate spheroid or a geoid
  5. Rotation –Spinning on polar axis every 23 hr 56 min n 9.54 secs

Do u Know

  1. Mercury,Venus,earth,Mars---inner planets
  2. Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune n Plut----outer planets
  3. Venus brightest planet.
  4. Mercury--- smallest
  5. Jupiter—largest
  6. Earth—living or blue planet
  7. Mars-red planet
  8. Pluto’s orbit elliptical intersects orbit of Neptune



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EARTHQUAKES: are violent tremors of Earth’s crust.

CHIEF CAUSE: slipping of rock formation along faults and fractures in the earth’s crust. This happens due to constant change in volume and density of rocks due to intense temperature & pressure in the earth’s interior.

FOCUS/HYPOCENTER: place of origin of an Earthquake inside the earth

EPICENTRE: point on the Earth’s surface vertically above the focus is called epicenter. On the earth’s surface, the maximum damage is caused at the Epicentre.

Generally, the greater the intensity of the shocks, the longer they last.

ISOSEISMIC LINE: an imaginary line connecting all points on the surface of the earth where the intensity of shaking produced by earthquake waves is the same.

MAGNITUDE: a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on seismographs; measured in terms of Richter scale.

INTENSITY: depends on the damage caused by the quake; does not have mathematical basis but the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used.

AFTERSHOCKS: earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake.

SEISMIC WAVES: spread out from the seismic focus. These waves are of three main types.

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    The two main areas of earthquakes in the world are

    • Around the Pacific ocean along a belt of volcanoes known as the RING OF FIRE .(more active)
    • From the middle Asia through the Mediterranean Sea to West Indies


      The term ‘landslides encompasses falling, toppling, sliding, flowing and subsidence of soil and rock materials under the influence of gravity and other factors.

      Slope instability may be caused by removal of lateral or underlying support mainly by river erosion and road cuts, landfill dumping, faulting, tectonic movements or the creation of artificial slopes by constructional activities.

      Large Landslides of India

      year location
      1971 Alakananda


      1993 Ratighat


      1993 Niligiri

      ( Tamil Nadu)


Rocks below the crust have very high temperature, but the great pressure upon these keeps them in a semi –solid state. If the pressure weakens then some of the rocks become liquid – called MAGMA. Within crust, volcanic features are BATHOLITHS: a large mass of magma, which often forms the root of mountain and is made of granite; SILI: a sheet of magma lying along the bedding plane – same may give rise to waterfalls and rapids when a mass of magma cuts across the bedding planes. Some dykes when exposed on the surface resist erosion and stand up as ridges or escarpments.

Sometimes magma reaches the surface through a VENT (hole) or FISSURE (crack). When magma reaches the surface, it is called LAVA. If lava comes through a vent, it builds up a volcano and if it emerges through a fissure. It builds up a LAVA PLATFORM OR LAVA FLOW.

Volcanoes pass through three stages:

In the active stage, eruptions are frequent: Mt Etna (Italy), Cotopaxi (Ecuador)

In dormant stage, eruptions become infrequent: Mt. Vesuvius (Italy)

Volcanoes, which have not erupted in historic times, are called extinct: Mt Aconcagua (Argentine Andes)

SOME DISASTROUS VOLCANOES Your browser may not support display of this image.

Distribution of Volcanoes in the World

They occur along coastal mountain ranges, as off- shore islands and in the midst of ocean, but there are few in the interiors of continents. The greatest concentration is probably that in the Circum –Pacific Region (Pacific Ring of Fire)- accounts for 2/3 of the world’s Volcanoes ; active Volcanoes in; Philippines- 100 , Andes-40, Japan- 35 , Indonesia – 70.

Atlantic Coasts- has many dormant or extinct volcanoes. Mediterranean region – associates with the Alpine Folds e.g. Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli.

The Himalayas have no active volcano at all.

In Africa- Mt Kilimanjaro & Mt Kenya (both Extinct); Mt Cameroon (active volcano)

Landforms formed by Internal Forces

MOUNTAINS They are formed in the process of orogenesis.
  • Fold Mountains
    • Young fold mountains
    • Old fold mountains

formed relatively recently & higher than old fold mountain; pointer peaks e.g. The Andes , The Rockies , the Alps, The Himalayas

formed long ago, rounded peaks

e.g. The Appalachians, The Urals and The Aravalis

  • Block Mountains
Land betn the two parallel faults either rises, forming block mountains or horsts , or subsides into depression termed as a rift valley .

e.g. Arabian Peninsula, the Sinai Peninsula, the Vosgus( France)

Black Forest Mountains( Germany) , Salt Range(Pak) , The Vindyas & The Satpuras (India)

  • Volcanic Mountains
called mountains of accumulation as formed by the accumulation of volcanic material.

e.g. Mt Fuji( Japan) , Mt Mayon( the Philippine) , Mt Merapi (Sumatra) Mt Agung( Indonesia ) & Mt Catopaxi( Ecuador)

  • Residual Mountains
form due to erosion by different agencies, known as relict mountain/ mountain of circumdenudation

e.g. Mt Manodnock( USA) , the Niligiri , the Parasnath, the Girnar & the Rajmahal( all in India)

  • Tectonic Plateaus
also called continental plateaus

e.g. Plateaus of Brazil, SOUTH Africa , West Australia, Chhota Nagpur & Shillong

  • Intermontane Plateaus
when plateaus are enclosed by fold mountains they are known as Intermontane Plateaus e.g. Tibetan plateaus , Bolivian plateaus
  • Piedmont Plateaus
situated at the foot of mountains

e.g. plateau of Malwa (India ) , plateau of Patagonia(Argentina) , plateau of Appalachian (USA)

  • Structural Plain
structurally depressed areas

e.g. Russian Platform, the Great Plains of USA , central lowlands of Australia

  • Erosional Plain
e.g. Northern Canada , . Northern Europe & Western Africa (all ice-eroded plains) & parts of Sahara in Africa(wind eroded plains)
  • Depositional Plain
e.g. Indo-Ganga (India), the Hwang Ho Plains (N.China) , the Po River Plains/Lombardy ( N.Italy) , Nile River- all great alluvial plain

plains of north-western Eurasia 7 PLAIN OF Ladakh – are plains made by glacial deposition

Friday, December 25, 2009

Hills of India.


The Peninsular Mountains : classified as follows
the western Ghats run along the west coast from south of the Tapti river valley to Kanyakumari; Deccan trap constitutes the northern portion of the Ghats;

Southern part : composed of Archean gneisses, Schists and Charnockites

Anai Muddi in the Anaimalai Hills 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats.

the Eastern Ghats irregular hill ranges stretches from northern Orissa to the Kerala and Tamil Nadu across coastal Andhra;

Highest Peak at 1680m in Vishakhapatnam dist( Andhra)

The meeting point of the western and Eastern Ghats in the Nilgiri Hills has the highest point at Doda Betta Peak.
The Vindhya Range Running from Sasaram(Bihar) in the east to Jobat(Gujarat) in the west

separates northern India from the southern mainland

They are believed to have been formed by the wastes created by the weathering of the ancient Aravali mountains.[

The Satpura range extends from Narmada valley(N) to the Tapti valley (S) ; It is triangular in shape, with its apex at Ratnapur

highest point : Dhupgarh near Pachmarhi(M.P.)

The Aravalis the oldest mountain range in India; most ancient fold mountain ranges ;

separates the semi desert and fertile regions of Rajasthan

highest point: Gurushikhar peak of Abu hills

The Northern Mountains : stretches across northern India from Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh( abt 2400km); the world’s youngest fold mountain ,achieve greatest heights in eastern Nepal
the outer Himalayas ( the siwaliks ) composed of tertiary sediments; emerged as most recent phase in Himalaya OROGENY
the outer Himalayas ARE SEPERATED FROM THE LESSER Himalayas by Duns ( valleys resulting from draining away of the temporary lakes formed by ridges when these obstructed the course of rivers
the lesser/outer Himalayas ( the himachal) the ranges include the 400km Pir Panjal range, the longest range of the Himalayas
the greater Himalayas ( the himadri) the innermost Himalayan Range is the world’s highest and most continuous of Himalayan ranges ; Himadri’s highest peak include world’s highest peak- Mt Everest
the trans Himalayan zone include imp ranges such as Zaskar Range and the Great Karakoram Range :extends 2wards south-east to form the Kailash Range; highest peak K2

longest glacier : Siachen ( Nubra Valley – 72 km )

the Peninsular Plateau : largest and oldest of all the physiographic division ; north- east limit: Aravali Range ‘ northern extreme – Bundelkhand and western and eastern ends : Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats resp.
the central plateaus the upland of Central India with river Ganga (N) , Vindhya and Satpura ranges (S)Kaimur-Maikal Range (E) and Aravalis and Kutch to (W)

comprise Mewar,Malwa(in M.P. formed of lava ) and Vindhya Plateaus

the eastern Plateaus diversified to topography ; low lying Mahanandi basin to undulating plateatus of the Bhaghelkhand , Chhota Nagpur and Dandakaranya

Meghalaya Plateau : beyond lava ridden Rajhmahal Hills

The Kathiawar and Kutch Plateaus joined to the Peninsular Plateaus by Gujrat’s plain; Deccan lava make up this region while Kutch – tertiary rocks
The Deccan plateaus occupy land between the Western and Eastern Ghats and south of Mahadeo ,Maikal and Satpura ranges ; comprise the Maharashtra Plateau(basalt) ‘Karnataka and Telangana plateaus ( Archaean gneisses)

India’s largest plateaus

the great plains : lies between the Himalayas and the peninsular Plateau , alluvial in nature
the Punjab Haryana plains Comprise the Bist Doab (betn Sutlej &Beas Rivers); Upper Bari Doab ( betn Beas and Ravi Rivers) and south- east Malwa Plain.
the Rajasthan plains comprise the marusthali of Thar and nearly Bagar areas

Luni river : flowing 2wards south-east ,only river in region

Rajasthan desert : sloping 2wards 2 direction – Indus valley in Pak ( W-wards ) and Ran of Kutch (S-wards)

the Ganga Plains spreading across the states of Uttar Pradesh ,West Bengal &Bihar

divided into : Ganga –Yamuna Doab , Rohilkhand Plain ,Avadh plain ( U.P.),Bihar Plain and Bengal Plain

Ganga Delta : constitutes the Ben gal basin , covered with tidal forests ( the Sunderbans)

the Brahmaputra Plains formed by deposit carried by Brahmaputra River , moist soil conditions
the Coastal plains : 4500 –km long coastline , Arabian Sea (W) , the Bay of Bengal (E)&Indian ocean (S)

runs from Rann of Kutch (W) to the delta of the Ganga- Brahmaputra (E)

the east coastal plains extend betn the source of Subarnarekha and Kanyakumari ; contain deltas of almost all rivers ( except Tapti and Narmada ) ; include Tamil Nadu plains, Andhra Plain and Utkal Plain
the West coastal plains run from Rann of Kutch to Kanyakumari; sandy plains
Islands : has a no. of islands (247) ; Bay of Bengal ( 204) & Arabian Sea (43)

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: in the Bay of Bengal, represent elevated potions of submarine mountains. Mount Harriet (460m): in South Andaman Islands is the highest point.

The Nicobar group contains 19 Islands. The Great Nicobar – largest island in group

Islands in Arabian Sea : coral origin & surrounded by fringing reefs e.g. Lakshadweep islands

Author--Nisha Dolas

River System

Principal river system of the world



    Longest river (6690km)

White Nile : originates from Lake Albert (Uganda) and Blue Nile (Ethiopia) ; join 2gether at Khartoum in Sudan to form River Nile ; flowing thru Egypt (longest course) it falls into Mediterranean Sea near Alexandria


( South America )

Originates from Andes Mountain (Peru); tributaries come from Boilivia,Ecuador and Venezuela ,, flows mainly thru Brazil and falls into Atlantic Ocean
Yangtze Kiang

(Asia )

Rises in north-east Tibet ; flows mainly thru China, draining into the East China Sea

(North America )

Mississippi- rises in Lake Itasca(USA); Missouri joins it Saint Louis ; they flow into Gulf of Mexico( New Orleans)

(North America )

Rising in great Slave lake , flows thru Canada to Mackenzie Bay in Arctic Ocean


Rises in Tibet. Falls into South china Sea


Rising near Sierra Leone , it crosses Niger and flows mainly thru Nigeria and enters Atlantic Ocean at Gulf of Guinea
Murray- Darling (Australia ) Murray – rises in Australian Alps; Darling-biggest tributary ( joins it in the New South Wales ) both empty into Indian Ocean at Encounter Bay

( Europe)

Rises in Valdai Plateau north-east of Moscow and enters the Caspian Sea


Rises near Baden (Germany); enters the Black Sea



    Rises from Great Himalaya, Karakoram .Ladakh, Zanskar, Kailasah and Trasns –Himalaya ranges and ultimately join to form 3 great river systems.

The Indus system : One of the world’s largest river system
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries Other Features
The Indus

(westernmost of Himalaya )

Mansarover Lake side of, Tibet Arabian Sea 1270 Zanskar( rises on Zanskar Range and joins Indus below Leh)

Dras( from northern side of Zojila pass)

Shyok(from northern side of Karakorum

Shigar: drains southern slope of k2

draining the glaciers and mountain slopes of many peaks:

Masherbrum(7821m), Nanga Parbat (7114m), Rakaposhi(7788m), Tirich Mir (7690m)

The Jhelum Seshanag Wular lake 725 Lidar: at the head of it Imp river in Kashmir , main waterway
The Chenab

( largest of Indus tributaries )

1800 Chandra and Bhaga : at source , rises opp sides of Baralacha Pass in Lahul

Chandra: flows thru a snow-clad , barren country

Bhaga :precipitous stream

Chandra & bhaga joins @Thandi

nd flows thru Chamba

largest tributary of Indus
The Ravi

( smallest river of Punjab )

Rohtang pass join Chenab in Pakistan 725km
The Beas Rohtang pass Joins Sutlej
The Sutlej Rakas Lake Spiti Imp trading centre betn Kailas & Mansarover
The Saraswati In siwalik hills of simur joins Ghaggar
The Ganga System : important river system, covers fourth of country’s total surface;

Bhagirathi: upper course of river , Source: Gangotri Glacier(Gomukh)

Alakananda: another stream from Alaka Glacier , Devprayag: two head streams meet at Devprayag ,

largest river basin in country

River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Yamuna Yamontri glacier 1376 Joins Ganga @

Allahabad ; Chambal ( rises near Mhow ), Sind , Betwa ,Ken

The Son Amarkantak Joins Yamuna @Etawah district joining Ganga near Ramnagar
The Ram Ganga Kumaon Himalaya joining Ganga near Kannauj
The Sarda

(called Cauka and Kali)

greet Himalaya Joins Ganga near Kannauj
The Ghaghra East of Gangotri
The Gandak Nepal china border ( central Himalaya ) Meets Ganga on its left at sonpur
The Kosi Peaks of Nepal ends in Ganga below Bhagalpur
The Damodar Chottanagpur Plateau Garhi, Konar, Jamunia. Barakar

The Brahmaputra System: also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

From its origin in southwestern Tibet as the Yarlung Zangbo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges and into Arunachal Pradesh where it is known as Dihang.[2] It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). There it merges with the Ganges to form a vast delta. About 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long, the river is an important source for irrigation and transportation.

The East-flowing Rivers
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Mahanadi near Sihawa in Raipur (Chhattisgarh) Bay of Bengal 858 drainage areas: 53%M.P nd chattisgarh,46%Orissa and rest- M.P. nd Jharkhand
The Godavari Trambak(Nasik – western Ghats ) Bay of Bengal

(form large delta before draining)

1465 Manjara , Penganga , Pranhita ,Wardha, Waingangā ,Indrāvati, Tal , Sabari, Mula and Pravara largest of peninsula and 2nd largest river of country , known as Vrindha Ganga and Dakshin Ganga
The Krishna North of Mahabaleshwar

(western Ghats )

Bay of Bengal 1400 Tungabhadra –largest tributary

(Tunga+Bhadra):originates in Mysore nd join below shimoga

Bhima: flows thru Maharashtra nd Andhra Pradesh

The Subarnarekha Chottanagpur Plateau(Ranchi) Bay of Bengal 395
The Penner Kolar dist.(Karnataka) sea near town of Nellore Chitravati and Papaghni
The Brahmani formed by joining Koel and sankh Bay of Bengal

(Brahmani meets Baitarani just before)

The Baitarani Keonjar Plateau in Orissa 333
The Cauvery Brahmagiri hills in Coorg dist. 805 Bhavani, Noyil, Amaravati,Hemavati, Shimsa and Kabbani 55% of Cauvery basin lies in Tamil Nadu

Karnataka (41%)

Kerala (5%)

The Tambrapani Agastyamalai’s slope (western Ghats ) Gulf of Mannar
The West-flowing Rivers
River Origin Destination Length Tributaries other features
The Narmada Amarkantak plateau (M.P.) 1312 largest of west flowing rivers ; Dhuandhara Falls: it cascades down to make the narrow gorge of Marble Rocks
The Tapti near Multai Plateau (Satpura) Gulf of Cambay 724 Purna :enters Khandesh 2nd largest of west flowing rivers
The Luni Annasagar in Aravalis(Ajmer) Sahni marshes of the Rann of Kutch. Sarsuti: rises Pushkar lake at Ajmer
The Sabarmati Lake of Jai Samudra in Udaipur dist. Gulf of Cambay Sabar(coming from Idar) and Hathmati(coming from Mahikantha)
The Mahi Gwalior

Gulf of Cambay

Nisha Dolas
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Thursday, December 24, 2009

Continental Facts

Continent facts

largest continent , covering almost third of the world’s land area

highest place on the earth :Mount Everest (8848mtrs above sea level

lowest place on the earth: Dead Sea shore (399mtrs below sea level)

  • Northern Lowlands :comprise the Serbian plain which extends between theUral mountains (W) and river Lena (E)
  • Central mountains :comprising fold mountains and plateaus
  • Southern plateaus :formed of very old rocks , the southern plateaus comprising the plateau of Arabia, the Deccan plateau and the plateau of Yunnan
  • Great river valleys: some of these river systems – the Tigris-Euphrates, The Indus, The Ganga-Brahmaputra, the Ayeryarwaddy, the Mekong, the Sikiang, the Chang Jiang (Yangtze- kiang) and the Huang He – are very old.
  • Island groups : Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan
mountainsAsia has more mountain than any other continent.

Himalaya, Karakoram, Altai, Elbruz, Zagros, Urals. Kunlun , Tein Shan

Pamir Knot(Roof of the world):large group of rugged peaks and deep valleys(lies where Afghanistan, china , Pakistan and Central Asian Republics meet)

Tarim Basin : Between the Kunlun and the Tein Shan

riversEuphrates, Tigris, Ganga, Hwang Ho, Amur, Sikiang, the Yangtze is Asia’s longest river.
desertsArabian Desert, Gobi Desert, Thar Desert
lakesBaikal (Siberia ): deepest lake in world ; Caspian Sea, Aral Sea
straitsStrait of Malacca, Bering Strait

AfricaSecond largest continent, one-fifth of the land area: separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea and from Asia by the Red Sea. In the north-west: Gibraltar, northeast: Suez Canal; strait of Bab-el Mandeb connect Africa to Eurasia: Africa has largest tropical area in the world.
  • Low Africa (consisting northern, western nd central )
  • Costal Lowlands
  • Northern highlands
  • Saharan Plateau
  • Western Plateau
  • Nile Basin
  • Congo Basin
  • High Africa (consisting eastern and southern Africa)
  • Rift system: spl physical feature of Africa, consist of the Great Rift Valley (series of parallel cracks in the earth), extends from Ethiopia in the East to Mozambique in the southeast. Rich in volcanic soil
  • Eastern highlands
  • Southern Plateau
  • Coastal Lowlands
  • Madagascar
mountainsAtlas( extending from Morocco to Tunisia ,non –volcanic), Drakensberg, Mt. Kilimanjaro(in Tanzania) and Mt. Kenye (in Kenya) are volcanic activity
riversNile(longest river in the world, drains into the Mediterranean sea ) , Zaire(Congo: carries the greatest volume of water among all the rivers of Africa)), Niger(discharge into the Atlantic), Limpopo and Zambezi(drain into Indian ocean)
, Orange, ,Nyasa, Turkana
desertscover two-fifths of Africa

Sahara(world’s largest desert; stretches across northern Africa from the Atlantic sea to the red sea),

Kalahari, Namib

lakesVictoria: largest lake in Africa and source of river

Tanganyika, Rudolf, Albert ,Nyasa, Turkana

straitsstrait of Babel-Mandeb, strait of Gibraltar

north AmericaThird largest continent, extending from the Arctic Ocean in the north to south America in the south.
physical division
  • Canadian Shield: huge area of ancient rocks covers most of Canada; reservoir of valuable mineral resources like gold, silver, nickel, iron, and copper, platinum; made up of swamps nd no. of lakes: Great Bear, Winnipeg and Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario, and Michigan). The famous Niagara Falls is located between Lake Erie and lake Ontario
  • The Appalachian Mountains/Eastern Highlands
  • The Central plains :cover flat river basin of the Missouri-Mississippi
  • Western Cordilleras: intermontane Plateaus- the Great Basin (largest intermontane Plateau of continent) active volcano in Alaska and Mexico.
mountainsRockies(north America’s largest mountain range), Alaska(north America’s highest mountain range), Cascade, Sierra Madre

Mt McKinley(6194m): north America’s highest mountain

riversMississippi, Missouri, Rio Grande, Mackenzie. Columbia

Mississippi- Missouri-Ohio: continent’s largest river system

Grand Canyon of river Colorado- largest in world

desertsMojave, Sonoran
lakesSuperior(largest freshwater lake in world), Huron, Erie, Ontario, Great Bear , Great Slave ,Great Salt Lake in Utah ( saltier than sea)
straitsBering strait
CoastlineAbout 300000km (longer than any other continent )

South Americafourth largest continent , surrounded by water – the Caribbean Sea (north), the Atlantic Ocean (northeast and east) , the Pacific ocean (west) and the Dark Passage (south)

the Isthmus of Panama : connected to central America by narrow strip of land

physical division
  • Western coastal strip
  • Western Mountains
  • The central plains :covering about three-fifths of south Africa made up of LALMOS (rolling grasslands in Orinoco river basin of Colombia and Venezuela), THE SELVA:tropical rain forest of the Amazon river basin in Bolivia, Brazil and Peru) , THE GRAN CHACO(HARDWOOD SERIAL FOREST IN NORTHG-CENTRAL Argentina , western Paraguay and southern Bolivia ), THE PAMPAS(vast grasslands in Argentina)
  • Eastern Highlands: consist of the Guyana Highlands and the Brazilian Highlands
mountainsAndes : called western mountains, from Venezuela in the north to Tierra del Fuego in the south , young fold mountain second highest mountain system in the world ,next to Himalaya , world’s largest mountain ranges above sea level

Mt Aconcagua(6959m)in Argentina : tallest mountain in western hemisphere

Cotopaxi in Ecuador: highest active volcano in the world.

riversAmazon: world’s second longest river but has the largest drainage basin , Orinoco, Parana, Paraguay , The Rio de le Plata, the Magdalena-Cauca, the San Francisco

the Angel Falls in southern-eastern Venezuela- highest water fall in the world

desertsAtacama, Patagonia
lakeslake Maracaibo, Lake Titicaca
straitsStrait of Magellan
coastline32000km , Tierra del Fuego( largest islands ), the Juan Fernandez the Falkland and the Galapagos
Europesixth in terms of area of continents ; extends from the arctic Ocean (North) to the Mediterranean Sea , the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains (south) and from the Atlantic Ocean (west)
physical division
  • Northwest Mountains: include some of the oldest rock formations on earth
  • North European Plains: extends from Urals in east to Atlantic coast in west.
  • The Central Uplands: include the Meseta (Spain and Portugal)The Massif Central and Juna Mountains (France), the Black Forest (Germany)
  • The Alpine System :stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in west to Caspian sea in East
mountainsAlps(covering part of south –eastern France, north Italy, most of Switzerland ,parts of southern Germany, Austria and Northern Yugoslavia), the Apennines, the Alpines Pyrenees, Carpathians, Urals, Balkans

The highest mountain peak of Europe is Mount Elbrus (5633m) in the Caucasus.

riversVolga: longest river of Europe (flowing thru Russia – Caspian Sea), Danube( 2nd longest river of Europe , drains into Black Sea) , Rhine(flows thru Alps –western Germany – Netherlands- North Sea) ,Po, Dnieper, Don, Vistula, Elbe, Oder
desertsNo desert
lakesLake Ladoga (Europe’s largest freshwater lake in Russia). The salt water Caspian sea: which lies partly in Europe and partly in Asia, is the world’s largest lake (Europe’s lowest point). Finland : country of 60000 lakes, known as ‘land of thousand lakes’
straitsStrait of Gibraltar

Australialies entirely in Southern Hemisphere
physical division
  • Western Plateau : covers two-third of Australia ; The Nullarbor Plain : vast, dry ,treeless plateau
  • Central Lowlands:
  • Eastern Highlands
mountainsGreat Dividing Range , Mount Kosciusky(2228m)- highest peak in Australia
riversMurray: originating from the Snowy mountains in Alps , continents’ longest permanently flowing river, fed by Darling in dry season ;Darling
desertsGibson Desert, Great Sandy Desert, Great Victoria Desert, Simpson Desert ; cover third of Australia
lakesLake Eyre (lowest point in Australia)

Bass Strait ; world largest coral reef: Barrier Reef

Nisha Dolas