Sunday, November 22, 2009


Traditionally, geographers have been viewed the same way as cartographers and people who study place names and numbers. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processes and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. As space and place affect a variety of topics such as economics, health, climate, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.“ ...mere names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena (alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latter), to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the great laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. ”
  — William Hughes, 1863

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human(cultural) geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil, water, and landforms are produced and interact. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans

Branches of geography

Physical geography

Physical geography (or physiogeography) focuses on geography as an Earth science. It aims to understand the physical lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere, and global flora and fauna patterns (biosphere).

Human geography(Cultural)

Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with various environments. It encompasses human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects. While the major focus of human geography is not the physical landscape of the Earth (see physical geography), it is hardly possible to discuss human geography without referring to the physical landscape on which human activities are being played out, and environmental geography is emerging as a link between the two.

Environmental geography

Environmental geography is the branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment.



Geomatics is a branch of geography that has emerged since the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid 1950s. Geomatics involves the use of traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography and their application to computers. Geomatics has become a widespread field with many other disciplines using techniques such as GIS and remote sensing. Geomatics has also led to a revitalization of some geography departments especially in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s.

Regional geography

Regional geography is a branch of geography that studies the regions of all sizes across the Earth. It has a prevailing descriptive character. The main aim is to understand or define the uniqueness or character of a particular region which consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid also to regionalization which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions.

Regional geography is also considered as a certain approach to study in geographical sciences.


Geographical techniques

As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, maps are a key tool. Classical cartography has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based geographic information systems (GIS).

In their study, geographers use four interrelated
Systematic - Groups geographical knowledge into categories that can be explored globally.
Regional - Examines systematic relationships between categories for a specific region or location on the planet.
Descriptive - Simply specifies the locations of features and populations.
Analytical - Asks why we find features and populations in a specific geographic area.

National Highways

SNo National Highways Connects
1 NH 1 New Delhi - Ambala - Jalandhar - Amritsar.
2 NH 2 Delhi - Mathura - Agra - Kanpur - Allahabad - Varanasi - Kolkata
3 NH 3 Agra - Gwalior - Nasik - Mumbai
4 NH 4 Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun.
5 NH 5 Kolkata - Chennai
6 NH 6 Kolkata - Dhule
7 NH 7 Varanasi - Kanyakumari
8 NH 8 Delhi - Mumbai (Via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)
9 NH 9 Mumbai - Vijaywada
10 NH 10 Delhi - Fazilka

Friday, November 20, 2009

Vishnugad Pipalkoti Project

Vishnugad-Pipalkoti Hydroelectric Project


The Vishnugad Pipalkoti Project has been designed as a 444 Megawatt, run-of-river hydropower generation scheme which, when completed, will generate approximately 1,800 Gigawatt-hours, (or million kilowatt-hours) of energy in a typical dependable year, representing a valuable addition of peaking power to India’s Northern grid, which faces severe power shortages at peak consumption times.

In order to maintain the water flow needed for power generation, the Project will build a 65-meter diversion dam to create a small reservoir in the Alaknanda gorge. This reservoir will store about 3.63 million cubic meters, the equivalent of about 4.9 hours of average flow of the river waters. A 13.4-kilometer head race tunnel will carry the water to an underground powerhouse which will generate the power.


Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST)


The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), which is declared as Deemed to be University under Section 3 of the UGC Act 1956, was set up under Department of Space, Goverment of India, and offers undergraduates B Tech programme in Avionics, Aerospace Engineering and Physical Sciences. IIST also offers post graduate and doctoral programmes to meet the requirements of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In addition to the regular curriculum, the courses will have special modules tailored to space technology and space science. IIST focuses on high-end research activities with the country's space programmes and related innovative ventures.

The Institute provides a full fledged infrastructure of International standards to develop an excellent academic and research atmosphere. The academic programme for the year 2007-2008 started in a full fledged alternate campus adjacent to the world renowned Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre at Thiruvananthapuram. Development of permanent campus near Thiruvananthapuram, has been initiated and is expected to be realized in the next one year.

Tropic of capricon passes thruu????

tarting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Tropic of Capricorn passes through:

Co-ordinatesCountry, territory or seaNotes
23°26′S 0°0′EAtlantic Ocean
23°26′S 14°27′E Namibia
23°26′S 20°0′E Botswana
23°26′S 27°18′E South AfricaLimpopo Province, Pietersburg
23°26′S 31°33′E MozambiqueGaza and Inhambane provinces
23°26′S 35°26′EIndian OceanMozambique Channel
23°26′S 43°45′E MadagascarToliara and Fianarantsoa provinces
23°26′S 47°39′EIndian Ocean
23°26′S 113°47′E AustraliaWestern Australia
Northern Territory
23°26′S 151°3′ECoral SeaPassing just south of Cato Reef in Australia's Coral Sea Islands Territory
23°26′S 166°46′EPacific OceanPassing just north of the Minerva Reefs ( Tonga), and just south of Tubuai ( French Polynesia)
23°26′S 70°36′W ChileAntofagasta Region
23°26′S 67°07′W ArgentinaJujuy, Salta, Jujuy (again) and Formosa provinces
23°26′S 61°23′W ParaguayBoquerón, Presidente Hayes, Concepción, San Pedro and Amambay departments
23°26′S 55°38′W BrazilMato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, and São Paulo states, and just south of the city of Rio de Janeiro
23°26′S 45°2′WAtlantic Ocean

[edit]Places located along the Tropic of Capricorn

A sign marking the Tropic of Capricorn as it passes through Namibia.
Roadside monument marking Tropic of Capricorn in Rockhampton, Australia, 28th January 2005
Road sign marking Tropic of Capricorn in Western Australia, Australia, 26th August 2008

The following cities and landmarks are either located near the Tropic of Capricorn, or pass through it.

South Africa