Why the Aravallis are called a divide between Mewar and Marwar? (CSE2004)
Mewar and Marwar are two socio-cultural regions which are located on either side of the Aravallis. While Mewar is located to the east of the Aravaliis, Marwar is located to the west. The Physical terrain on the either side of the Aravaliis is vastly different and this has given rise4 to the two different regions.
Marwar is largely an arid wasteland suitable only for the raising of goats and camels. The region has very low rainfall, in the range of 0-20cm. the whole region is covered with shifting sand dunes. The luni is the only river of some importance. In greater part of the area the ground water is impregnated with salt. There are numerous salt lakes of which Sambhar is largest. Gypsum and salt are mined, and cotton is raised.
Mewar is mostly an alluvial plain watered by ma by intermittent streams. Rainfall is in the region of 20-40cm. Grains, sugarcane and oilseeds are grown. There are also extensive mineral deposits of iron ore, lead and zinc.
THE ARAVALLI RANGES are one of the most ancient mountain ranges in India that lies in the north-western part of the country. It separates the sandy desert of west Rajasthan and the fertile tracts in the eastern parts of the State. The present Aravalli ranges comprise only a part of the gigantic system that existed in pre-historic times. The entire ranges once rose to stupendous heights nourishing glaciers which in turn fed many great rivers. The ranges are now crossed by many rivers including Luna and the Banas. Luna and its small tributaries flow westward and in due course merge with Rann of Kutch and the Banas and its streams flow from the eastern side of the ridge and join the Yamuna. Aravallis are also gifted with great mineral wealth.
In 1901 the region (Jodhpur state) had an area of 90,554 km² (34,963 square miles).
Marwar is a sandy plain lying northwest of the Aravalli Range, which runs southwest-northeast through Rajasthan state. The Aravallis wring much of the moisture from the southwest monsoon, which provides most of India's rainfall. Annual rainfall is low, ranging from 10-40cms. Temperatures range from 48 to 50 degrees Celsius in the summer, to below freezing point in winter. The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie next to the Aravalli Range, while the rest of the region lies in the Thar Desert.
Marwar region of Rajasthan
The Luni River is the principal feature of the Marwar plains. It originates in the sacred Pushkar Lake of Ajmer District, and the main river flows through Marwar in a south-westerly direction until it finally disappears into the seasonal wetland of the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. It is fed by numerous tributaries that flow from the Aravallis. Irrigation from the river and from wells near the river, support crops of wheat and barley.
The sandy tracts of Thar Desert in western Marwar are characterized by a harsh physical geography and a fragile ecology. High wind velocity, shifting sand dunes and very deep and saline water sources pose a challenge to sustained human habitation in the Thar. The area is also prone to devastating droughts. The Thar Desert is one of the most inhospitable landscapes on earth. Apart from the huge distances between hamlets and settlements here, the landscape is constantly shifting with the sand, as wind and sandstorms re-arrange the landscape at will. This added to the lack of water in such an arid region, means that the villagers of the area often find themselves migrating on foot across hundreds of miles towards neighboring states in search of water.
The northern part of Mewar is a gently sloping plain, drained by the Bedach & Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal River, a tributary of the Yamuna River. The southern part of the region is hilly, and marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Cambay through Gujarat state. The Aravalli Range forms the northwestern boundary of the region, composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material.
The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sitamata Game Sanctuary.
Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, and is generally higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain typically falls in the period June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon